Male infertility and semen pathologies


It is very common to talk about female infertility today, but what about male infertility?

According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), male infertility is characterised by a dysfunction or disorder of the reproductive system.

More generally, it is defined as the inability to become pregnant after 12 months or more despite regular unprotected regular unprotected sexual intercourse.

Causes of male infertility

Male infertility can be due to various causes such as heavy medication, exposure to high temperatures, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, STIs or sperm abnormalities spermatozoa.

These causes can affect the quality of the sperm and therefore have an impact on the chances of getting pregnant.

In this article we will look at the different sperm diseases, also known as sperm abnormalities.

Sperm pathologies:

  • Hypospermia: complete ejaculatory volume less than 1.5 ml.

Hypospermia is detected when the total ejaculate is less than 1.5 millilitres. Retrograde ejaculation, ejaculation which instead of going outside goes up to the bladder, is usually the main cause of this.

However, it can also be caused by genetic disorders, hormonal imbalances or congenital abnormalities. It is one of the causes of male infertility and does not always involve sterility.

  • Aspermia: zero ejaculatory volume.

A condition in which a man experiences so-called dry orgasms or orgasms in which there is no sperm released. It can also be the result of retrograde ejaculation, genetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis, absence of vas deferens, hormonal imbalances, and the use of antidepressants. Although it can be treated, it is often a problem for people planning a pregnancy.

  • Asthenozoospermia: This is a condition where a large percentage of sperm cells move abnormally. This means that their mobility is poor or incorrect. It may also be accompanied by a low sperm count.

The causes of this disorder include a poor lifestyle or genetic and hormonal problems. There are also treatments for this disorder.

  • Necrozoospermia: In these cases, all the sperm in the semen are dead. It is a rare cause of male infertility. This term is used when more than 42% of the sperm present in the ejaculate are dead.
  • Hyperspermia: ejaculatory volume greater than 6 ml.

Hyperspermia is a condition in which a man produces an above-average volume of semen. It contains sperm, as well as fluid from the prostate gland.

This can be caused by abstinence from sex for too long or anatomical and functional damage to the seminal glands. This condition is rare and should not cause any fertility problems in men. fertility concerns in men.

  • Oligozoospermia: sperm concentration below 15 million/ml.

This is a condition in which a man may have a low sperm count as well as problems with the shape and movement of the sperm.

This problem can be due to a varicocele, hormonal imbalances, undescended testicles, infections of the reproductive system, environmental conditions and lifestyle choices. In some cases, a few lifestyle changes can help to improve the situation.

  • Polyzoospermia: sperm concentration above 250 million/ml.

The presence of more than 200 million sperm per cc. It can be the cause of sterility since such a high concentration of sperm can make their progressive mobility difficult.

In practice, it is resolved by preparing the sperm for intrauterine inseminations.

  • Azoospermia: absence of sperm on the “fresh” ejaculate.

This is a condition in which a man releases semen that does not contain sperm during an orgasm. It is a serious type of male infertility.

It can be caused by genetic disorders, hormonal imbalances, congenital abnormalities, untreated STDs or cancer treatment.

  • Cryptozoospermia: A condition in which the number of sperm in the semen is significantly lower than average. This is defined as less than 100,000 sperm per millilitre.

It is very difficult for a couple to achieve a pregnancy if the partner is affected by this condition. It is advisable to use Assisted Reproductive Technologies to overcome this problem.

  • Teratozoospermia: In this condition, the majority of the sperm in the semen have an abnormal shape. For example, the sperm may have more than one head, a tail or simply have a strange head shape.

This prevents them from moving normally and affects their ability to fertilise an egg, reducing the chances of pregnancy.

  • Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT): A condition that combines several sperm abnormalities. In this case, the shape, size and movement of the spermatozoa are abnormal.

The sperm count may also be lower than normal. This is a very complex condition with many possible causes. It is the leading cause of male infertility.

  • Leukocytospermia: This is a condition characterised by the presence of a large number of white blood cells in the semen. It is often a sign of an infectious inflammatory condition.

This inflammation reduces the mobility of the sperm, which can have a negative impact by causing a lack of fertilisation or poor embryonic development. This is more of a sperm abnormality than a sperm abnormality.

How do we diagnose male infertility?

The seminal quality is not related to the general health of the man. A completely healthy man can suffer from seminal pathologies that prevent him from fertilizing the egg.

In order to find out what the main cause preventing fertility is, we look at the male factor, as well as the female factor. To do so, we perform an exhaustive analysis of the semen sample in which we evaluate the concentration, motility and morphology of the spermatozoa.

With this result we can refine the diagnosis to guide the treatment towards the best guarantees of pregnancy.

If you want a specialist to evaluate your case, do not hesitate to ask for a free first medical appointment with one of our gynecologists. We are here to help you.