Infertility tests: Do you know what the most frequent ones are?
When a couple consults a specialist for a case of infertility, there are several tests to establish a diagnosis and identify the problem(s).
In all cases, both parties in the couple must undergo examinations because infertility can come from both the woman and the man. Depending on the degree of infertility (primary, secondary), their general health, the specialist may decide to carry out basic or more complex tests.
Infertility tests: the basics
- Ovarian function in women:
First of all, it is necessary to check whether the woman has a problem with anovulation or
ovarian reserve. The two essential examinations here will be a transvaginal ultrasound to check for the presence of follicles in the ovaries, and a blood test for the AMH (Anti-Mullerian hormone) level.
- Female anatomy:
The general appearance of the uterus, ovaries and fallopian tubes should also be examined to fibroids, adenomyosis, cysts or obstruction of the tubes, all of which could hinder fertilisation and embryo implantation.
These examinations consist of a simple ultrasound scan or a hysterosalpingography.
- Sperm quality in men:
By analysing the sperm in the ejaculate (spermogram), we can check their morphology, vitality, concentration and speed of movement.
In-depth examinations in case of unexplained infertility: If the results of the basic tests are normal, or if the couple has already undergone unsuccessful MAP treatments, then the diagnosis can be further investigated to explain these cases of unexplained infertility.
Exhaustive examinations in case of unknown infertility
- Genetic counselling:
For both the man and the woman, it will be interesting to check the karyotype, i.e. the number and structure of the chromosomes.
A translocation of the chromosomes can lead to infertility.
- Thrombophilia study:
If there is a history of repeated miscarriages or implantation failures, a “miscarriage test” should be carried out on the woman. This blood test provides information on the blood coagulation capacity and therefore the good irrigation of the uterus.
- Study of the endometrium:
The endometrium must also be studied in the case of infertility because if there is an abnormality, implantation cannot take place. There are now very useful tools on the receptivity and kendometrial immunology.
Infertility can also be caused by an infection in the endometrium or cervix,
and a biopsy and culture can help us detect it.
- Diagnostic hysteroscopy:
A hysteroscopy is a much more comprehensive imaging test than an ultrasound.
By inserting a camera into the uterine cavity, we can observe possible obstacles to embryo implantation: walls, adenomyosis, adhesions, intrauterine fibroids…
- Extensive sperm examinations in men:
In addition to the spermogram, there are more advanced sperm examinations, such as sperm DNA fragmentation studies and FISH (sperm karyotype) which can help in cases of unexplained infertility.
The field of assisted reproduction is constantly evolving and every year we have new tools that allow us to help couples in their journey to become parents.
At Vida Fertility, our goal is to arrive at the most detailed diagnosis possible, to establish a treatment plan that is 100% adapted to the patient’s needs.
If you do not get pregnant and you want a specialist to study your case, ask for a free first consultation with one of our gynaecologists, because in Vida Fertility we believe that: Yes, you can be a mother.