How to know if I am fertile as a man and a woman without a doctor’s consultation

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How to determine if I am fertile? According to the National Statistics Institute, one in six couples of reproductive age in Spain faces challenges getting pregnant.

Here, we delve into understanding your fertility and the necessary infertility tests should conception not occur within a year.

For her, how to determine if I am fertile?

Evaluating a woman’s fertility involves considering various aspects that reflect her reproductive health. Below are key indicators to help understand female fertility:

Menstrual Cycle: an indicator to determine if I am fertile

Regular menstrual cycles are an initial indicator of fertility in women. Cycles ranging between 21 and 35 days are typically normal, suggesting ovulation – a critical fertility marker.

Ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovary, is crucial for conception.

Fertility Signs in Women

Symptoms like increased cervical mucus, changes in basal body temperature, or mild pain on one side of the abdomen can indicate ovulation.

  • Cervical Mucus: Nearing ovulation, cervical mucus becomes abundant, clear, stretchy, and slippery.
  • Cervix Position: As ovulation approaches, the cervix softens, dilates, and rises, easing sperm movement. It then returns to being firm and closed.
  • Basal Body Temperature: Post-ovulation, a woman’s body temperature usually rises by 0.5 degrees due to increased progesterone levels.
  • LH Hormone Surge: Detected through an ovulation test, it shows the rise of LH hormone preceding ovulation, similar to a pregnancy test, and can be done at home.

Ovarian Reserve

The quantity and quality of available eggs, known as the ovarian reserve, are crucial in female fertility.

Tests measuring Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) levels and antral follicle counts via ultrasound provide valuable insights into a woman’s ovarian reserve.

Fertility Tests for Women

Fertility testing is essential when encountering conception difficulties. Below are common fertility tests conducted at specialized reproductive assistance clinics:

  1. Hormonal Analysis: Includes Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), prolactin, Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH), and estrogen levels to identify hormonal imbalances affecting ovulation and fertility.
  2. Transvaginal Ultrasound: Offers a detailed view of the ovaries, uterus, and fallopian tubes.
  3. Hysterosalpingography (HSG) or Hysterosonography (HSSG): Useful for detecting tubal obstructions that may prevent sperm from meeting the egg or the fertilized egg from reaching the uterus.
  4. Ovarian Reserve Test: Measures AMH levels and counts antral follicles through ultrasound.
  5. Laparoscopy: Identifies and possibly treats issues like endometriosis, adhesions, and tubal obstructions.
  6. Thyroid Hormone Analysis: Conducted to rule out thyroid issues that may affect ovulation and overall health, impacting fertility.

These tests are critical for identifying infertility causes, allowing reproductive assistance specialists to create a tailored treatment plan.

For him, how to dertemine if I am fertile?

Achieving pregnancy involves both women and men, with the latter being responsible for 50% of conception difficulties. Evaluating male fertility requires assessing several key reproductive health factors.

Sperm Quality, Quantity, and Mobility

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The main aspects include sperm quality, quantity, and mobility.

  • Sperm Quality: Refers to the morphology of sperm, ensuring they have the correct shape and structure for fertilization.
  • Sperm Quantity: The semen’s sperm concentration should be sufficient to increase fertilization chances, typically considered positive if it’s 15 million sperm per milliliter of semen or more.
  • Sperm Mobility: It’s crucial that a significant portion of these sperm can effectively move towards the egg to facilitate fertilization.

Seminogram: the fertility test for men

Seminogram, also known as semen analysis or spermiogram, is a fundamental test in the study of male fertility. It is performed to assess the health and quality of semen and sperm.

How is the semen analysis test performed?

Here is a step-by-step guide to a semen analysis:

  • Sample collection: The first step is the collection of a semen sample.
  • Volume analysis: Once collected, the total volume of semen is analysed. A typical volume ranges from 1.5 to 5 millilitres. Figures below or above may indicate fertility problems.
  • Sperm concentration assessment: The number of sperm present in the semen is measured, ideally more than 15 million per millilitre.
  • Sperm motility: The percentage of spermatozoa showing movement and the quality of this movement, essential for the ability to fertilise the egg, is assessed.
  • Sperm morphology: The shape of the sperm is examined. A percentage of sperm with a normal shape suggests higher fertility.
  • Vitality: The percentage of live sperm in the sample is determined.

What happens if the semen analysis is altered?

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If any of the parameters evaluated in the semen analysis are outside the normal range, the semen sample will be identified with the corresponding pathology. This condition may imply an infertility problem such as the ones detailed in the blog Semen pathologies and semen quality.

Factors influencing female and male fertility

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These are some of the factors that influence fertility

  • Lifestyle: regular physical activity promotes better reproductive health. However, excessive tobacco and alcohol consumption have proven negative effects on fertility, affecting semen quality in men and decreasing the chances of ovulation and conception in women.
  • Psychological factors such as stress: Chronic stress and other emotional factors can disrupt the hormonal balance necessary for conception.
  • Nutrition: Balanced nutrition promotes better reproductive health.
  • Female age and male age: Female fertility begins to decline after age 30, with a more significant decline after age 35. In men, although they may remain fertile longer, sperm quality also tends to decline with age, especially after age 40.

When to see an assisted reproduction specialist

Now that you are clear about the signs of fertility and how to know if you are fertile, it is important to mention that if you are over 35 and you are not able to get pregnant, it may be due to a condition such as the ones mentioned above.

As experts in assisted reproduction we advise you to undergo a complete fertility study if you have been trying to get pregnant for more than a year without success.

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